In some countries, however, government recognition of an institution and accreditation of a program are *both* required in order for a degree to be fully recognized. To make things even more exciting, it is common for institutions to offer both: some programs that are accredited & fall under the auspices of the Ministry of Education or other higher education authority and some programs that are aimed at those wanting an employment qualification or who aren’t aware of that institutions might offer programs that don’t fit within the legally recognized degree system.
These non-official, non-recognized proprietary programs do not provide access to further education at public higher education institutions or employment in government jobs, but they may have validity for employment in the private sector. Proprietary programs often have more flexible entrance requirements or a shorter duration than recognized & accredited programs. They are also often advertised to international students rather than local graduates. Sometimes these proprietary, institution-specific programs are known by special names such as Titulo Propio or Lato Sensu, but in other cases, identifying validated and non-validated programs requires serious research.